Its efficacy is attributed to a combination of anticholinergic, antispasmodic, local anaesthetic and calcium‐channel blocking activity [Oxybutynin is considered the first‐line pharmacological therapy for patients with a neurogenic bladder [However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxybutynin after intravesical administration are not well known [The higher proportion of CNS side‐effects after intravesical oxybutynin can be explained by pharmacokinetic studies. All these patients underwent a urodynamic assessment, renal ultrasonography and voiding cysto‐urethrography (VCUG).

It has direct musculotropic, antispasmodic activity on bladder muscle, as well as systemic anticholinergic effects [ 2]. Three other children reported temporary facial flushing, with associated drowsiness in two. Keywords: Overactive bladder, tolterodine, oxybutynin, dry eye, accommodation, intraocular pressure. The follow‐up evaluation comprised a urological evaluation to assess treatment efficacy and any side‐effects.

Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects.

Department of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andDepartment of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andDepartment of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andBassini Hospital, Milan‐Bicocca University, Cinisello Balsamo, Milan, ItalyDepartment of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andDepartment of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andDepartment of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andDepartment of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andBassini Hospital, Milan‐Bicocca University, Cinisello Balsamo, Milan, ItalyDepartment of Paediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, andUse the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Prasad and Vaidyanathan [In this retrospective study we compared two groups of children with urinary tract dysfunction and MMC treated with oral or intravesical oxybutynin, assessing the efficacy of the treatment and the incidence of side‐effects.Patients were selected from 225 children with MMC and neurogenic bladder dysfunction referred to the Spina Bifida Centre of the Catholic University of Rome from January 1993 to December 1998; all had undergone surgical repair within 24–48 h after birth.

1 Ocular side effects such as dry eyes, burning or foreign body sensation, and reduced accommodation 2 have been described in adults.

increased UTI or the appearance or worsening of VUR during VCUG, that suggested a closer re‐assessment.

The urodynamic findings and clinical features of the patients treated with oral or intravesical oxybutynin are shown in Of the 67 patients on oral oxybutynin, 19 (28%) discontinued, comprising 11 (16%) because of side‐effects and eight (12%) who changed to intravesical oxybutynin because there were clinical indications for starting CISC.

dry mouth, constipation, drowsiness and cognitive dysfunction [To minimize the side‐effects of oxybutynin different approaches have been proposed, e.g.

Citing Literature. Side Effects.

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